Probably more than any other element, iron markedly influences the chemical and physical properties of soils and sediments in the earth. Considering its transition metal status, with potential variation in electronic configuration, ionic radius, and magnetic moment, combined with its abundance and relatively large mass, little wonder that one sees its unique influence on every hand. Pre- sentations at the NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO AS!) on Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals reviewed and discussed the occurrence, behavior, and properties of Fe-bearing minerals found in soils and in the clay mineral groups kaolinite, smectite, and mica. Also discussed at the NATO AS! were the basic chemical properties of Fe, methods for separating and identifying Fe in minerals, and the role of Fe minerals in weathering and other soil-forming processes. The present publication is the reviewed and edited proceedings of that Advanced Study Institute. The sequence of chapters follows the general pattern beginning with introductory chapters which overview the general occurrence of Fe in the earth and its chemistry, both generally and in mineral environments, followed by identification and characterization methods for Fe and Fe phases in minerals. The properties and behavior of Fe oxides, Fe-bearing clay minerals, and other Fe minerals in soils are then described, and the text ends with a summary of the role of Fe in soil-forming processes. A Table of Contents and subject index are provided to assist the reader in finding specific topics within the text.
Simon Basher is back with another zany primer to science Following his 3 successful titles on the basics of chemistry, physics, and biology, ROCKS AND MINERALS is an in-depth look at the ground beneath our feet. Like his other titles, Basher presents these topics through charming and adorable illustrations and pairs them with basic information told from a first person perspective. He develops a community of characters based on the things that form the foundations of our planet: rocks, gems, crystals, fossils and more. And what's more, he makes it understandable, interesting, and cute. It's not what you expect out of a science primer.
Over the last several decades, the number of people who are actively involved in the hobby or science of mineral collecting has grown at an increasing pace. In response to the growing demand for informa- tion which this large and active group has created, a number of books have been published dealing with mineralogy. As a result, the reader now has a choice among mineral locality guides, field handbooks, photo collections, or books dedicated to the systematic description of minerals. However, as interest in mineralogy has grown, as collectors have become increasingly knowledgeable and aware of mineralogy in its many facets, the need for more specialized information has also grown. Nowhere is this need greater than in the subject of the fluorescence of minerals. The number of collectors who now main- tain a fluorescent collection is substantial, interest is constantly increasing, and manufacturers have recently responded by the intro- duction of new ultraviolet equipment with major improvements in utility and performance. Yet when the collector searches for any information on this subject, little will be found. He or she will seek in vain for the answers to questions which present themselves as in- terest in fluorescent minerals grows and matures. Which minerals fluoresce? Where are fluorescent minerals found? What makes a mineral fluoresce? Why does ultraviolet light produce fluorescence? What is an activator, and how does it contribute to fluorescence? On these matters, the available mineralogy books are largely silent.
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