The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
A large variety of organisms - from bacteria to man - form minerals. Skeletons, teeth, spicules, spines, shells, darts, and granules are all mineral-containing tissues. Why, where, and how these minerals form are the central questions addressed in this book. These questions have become important in many fields. Preserved fossils are used to interpret ancient climates, changes in chemical composition of the oceans, or to date geological and archaeological deposits and artefacts. Materials scientists investigate mineralized tissues to try to determine the design principles used by organisms to form strong materials, and many medical problems are associated with normal and pathological mineralization. Heinz Lowenstam, the pioneering researcher in biomineralization, and his former student Stephen Weiner discuss the basic principles of mineral formation by organisms, and compare the various mineralization processes. Reference tables list all known cases in which organisms form minerals.
Geophysics, the excellent exploration tool which traditionally uses the latest techniques has been in great demand, and has assisted by remarkable development of the methods which consist of gravimetry, electromagnetics and, the most important, seismic reflection. The book is presented like an encyclopedia. One may find an exact definition, illustrated with simple sketches, precise formulae & orders of magnitude & data which have so often been missing.
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