The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change.
The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject.
The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about therole that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions.
Scientific observations and results are presented, along with numerous illustrations. This work has an interdisciplinary appeal and will engage scholars in geology, geography, chemistry, meteorology and physics, amongst others with an interest in the Earth system and environmental change.body>
The three volumes that will encompass North American Exploration appraise the full scope of the exploration of the North American continent and its oceanic margins from prior to the arrival of Columbus until the end of the nineteenth century. More than an assessment of historical events, these volumes portray the process of exploration. Without forgetting the romance of exploration, the authors recognize that exploration is a great deal more than the adventures themselves. All explorers are conditioned by the time, place, and circumstances of their efforts; these determine objectives, the behavior of explorers, and the consequences of their discoveries. In this first volume we follow the expansion of knowledge from the world of the pre-Columbian explorers through the end of the sixteenth century, with each topic addressed by an expert, and all fitting into a coherent whole. The volume is enhanced by a discussion of the geographical knowledge and beliefs of the native peoples of the North American continent, and how this knowledge influenced the efforts and understanding of the Europeans.
A1 Minerals Articles
A1 Minerals Books