New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
The results of recent experimental studies and modern theoretical concepts are combined in this volume to provide a comprehensive analysis of sulfide mineral oxidation processes. Introductory chapters discuss the properties of sulfide minerals and various investigative techniques, followed by chapters on oxidation mechanisms and the behavior of minerals under these various oxidizing conditions. This book also demonstrates modern methods of physical-chemical modelling and the regulation and optimization of flotation processes.
The application of surface geochemical methods to finding petroleum is based on the detection of hydrocarbons in the soil that have leaked from a petroleum reservoir at depth. While the seal over the deposit was once considered impermeable, surface geochemistry data now show that such leakage is a common occurrence. Despite its simplicity and low costs, surface geochemistry remains controversial because, until now, there was no objective and in-depth treatment of the various methods of surface geochemistry for oil exploration. Written by a successful oil finder, this practical guide: * surveys a broad array of surface geochemistry techniques, from soil gases to microbiology, and provides clear strategies for applying them to the high-stakes art of petroleum exploration * offers numerous case studies, both successes and failures, to show the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches * examines statistical and spatial variation, surveys and models in surface geochemistry, demonstrating how each analytical tool can be used to optimize accuracy * integrates surface geochemistry data interpretation with data from conventional methods of oil exploration, and considers the economics of surface geochemical approaches * discusses key topics that have been neglected in the literature, such as grid design and the effects of soils. Geologists, geophysicists, geological engineers and exploration managers involved in petroleum exploration will gain valuable insights from this volume. By presenting and evaluating each method of surface geochemistry in a neutral tone, this book enables the reader to select and employ these methods with greater confidence.
A1 Minerals Articles
A1 Minerals Books