The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
This volume presents information regarding the mechanisms of protein absorption under normal and pathologic conditions, in addition to reviewing changes that occur at various stages of life. General modifiers of intestinal absorption, such as the processing of foods, the nutritional status of the individual, and disease, are explored with reference to both proteins and minerals. Inorganic macronutrients, namely calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, are discussed in relation to protein ingestion. The book also explores the concept of essential trace elements (e.g., iron, zinc, copper, and iodine) and their link to protein sufficiency. The relationship of ultratrace elements with the content of proteins in food is examined, and the book offers a fresh view of the role of certain elements, particularly zinc, on the conformation of proteins linked to DNA, hormone receptors, and gene products. Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption is packed with 2,300 references, 100 figures and graphs, plus 25 tables. Nutritionists and physicians will find this book to be an invaluable reference source for rationalizing nutritional interventions and diet modifications for their patients.
Geophysics, the excellent exploration tool which traditionally uses the latest techniques has been in great demand, and has assisted by remarkable development of the methods which consist of gravimetry, electromagnetics and, the most important, seismic reflection. The book is presented like an encyclopedia. One may find an exact definition, illustrated with simple sketches, precise formulae & orders of magnitude & data which have so often been missing.
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