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The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
Fresh water is undoubtedly our most precious resource aside from the air we breathe, and the only commodity whose cost has steadily risen over time. At the same time, our understanding of the origins, pathways, and recharge mechanisms of the earth's most valuable "economic" mineral-groundwater-remains in the nineteenth century. It is ironic that this scientific anachronism is contributing to a global shortage of available fresh water supplies while oil, gas, and mineral discoveries have proliferated, vastly increasing the world's energy, precious metals, and industrial mineral reserves.
Modern Groundwater Exploration details applications and results of proven twenty-first- century technologies and geological concepts adapted from the oil, gas, and mineral exploration industries for evaluating, developing, and managing previously undiscovered, massive, sustainable groundwater resources. Unprecedented in both its scope and authority, this timely book presents:
* A new groundwater paradigm, coined Megawatershed, which accurately and comprehensively describes the earth's natural complex groundwater systems
* Innovative exploration, drilling, and testing technologies that make major new ground-water sources more locatable and cost-effective to produce than ever before
* Actual case studies in which megawatershed methods have identified vast quantities of new water and brought new hope to previously arid and desperately water-short locales
* Chapters by former OECD DAC chairman Alexander R. Love, geopolitical analyst Dr. Ewan Anderson, and former director of the Trinidad and Tobago Water Resources Agency Dr. Utam Maharaj on the tremendous global implications of the megawater-shed paradigm. These experts explore the many beneficial applications of megawater-shed development, from macroeconomics to development of small island developing state (SIDS), and from critical environmental issues to water conflict resolution and the potential for a second "green revolution"
The world's need for clean, dependable water is more urgent-and addressable-than ever before. Let Modern Groundwater Exploration introduce you to the authors' revolutionary megawatershed paradigm, along with the latest concepts and technologies for accessing vast reservoirs of groundwater-still today's safest, cleanest, and most plentiful water resource.
The paradigm and models of traditional soil science lack the ability to adequately address issues of soil dynamics, environmental integration, and change. Unexplainable research results obtained from traditional soil studies applied to non-traditional soil phenomena in physical geography, archaeology and ecology speak to the current need for soil science to move beyond description and classification and into a dynamic process-oriented soil science capable of providing explanations. Soils do not behave as static inert geologic detritus affected by climate, organisms, relief, and parent material through time, but instead soils behave as self-organizing systems dynamically interrelating with their environment. Recognition of this dynamic behaviour required a re-examination of how scientists in general think and in how modern soil science specifically evolved its basic paradigms and models.
This book examines the dynamics of soil organic carbon and demonstrates the self-organizing nature of soil through time as soil responds to a wide range of environmental and human perturbations.
- Makes soil science accessible to a wider audience by integrating soil science with biology, geography and archaeology
- Demonstrates universal application by including case studies from around the world
- Avoids pitfalls of determinism and vitalism by being well founded in the philosophy of science
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