The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
Vancouver Island is an excellent place to hunt for unusual minerals, gems, semi-precious stones, fossils and gold. With its unique geological environment it is one of the finest locations for rockhounding in Western Canada. Featuring detailed maps ranging from Victoria through the Chemainus Valley and up to Port Hardy, "A Field Guide to Gold, Gemstone & Mineral Sites of British Columbia, Vol. 1" covers more than 100 sites on Vancouver Island and adjacent islands.
The new second edition of this authoritative book has retained all the virtues of the best-selling original, explaining the unique challenges of oil and gas exploration and production in the world's deepwater provinces. New chapters on geology and geophysics, rigs, and service vehicles are included, and the engineering and scientific schemes used in deepwater are covered in greater detail. Case studies in several chapters give practical examples, while the final chapter presents the latest technology employed in a "third wave" of industry evolution. Contents: Foreword Introduction A century getting ready Letting go of the past Geology and geophysics Exploring the deepwater Drilling rigs Drilling and completing the well Development systems Fixed structures Floating productions systems Subsea systems Topsides Pipelines, flowlines, and risers Offshore support vessels Technology and the third wave
A1 Minerals Articles
A1 Minerals Books