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The exploration for and production of oil and gas to meet our nation's energy needs also results in the production of large quantities of water as a by-product. This water, which is produced from wells during exploration and production, is known as "produced water." Because produced water may contain a variety of contaminants, such as salts and minerals, it is often considered to be a waste stream that oil and gas producers must appropriately manage and treat before this water can be disposed of. If it is not appropriately managed or treated, the contaminants present in produced water discharged from oil and gas operations may threaten human health and the environment. This book explores the inextricable link between energy production and water with a focus on what is known about the volume and quality of produced water from oil and gas production; what practices are generally used to manage and treat produced water; and how the management of produced water is regulated at the federal level and in selected states.
New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence
Fresh water is undoubtedly our most precious resource aside from the air we breathe, and the only commodity whose cost has steadily risen over time. At the same time, our understanding of the origins, pathways, and recharge mechanisms of the earth's most valuable "economic" mineral-groundwater-remains in the nineteenth century. It is ironic that this scientific anachronism is contributing to a global shortage of available fresh water supplies while oil, gas, and mineral discoveries have proliferated, vastly increasing the world's energy, precious metals, and industrial mineral reserves.
Modern Groundwater Exploration details applications and results of proven twenty-first- century technologies and geological concepts adapted from the oil, gas, and mineral exploration industries for evaluating, developing, and managing previously undiscovered, massive, sustainable groundwater resources. Unprecedented in both its scope and authority, this timely book presents:
* A new groundwater paradigm, coined Megawatershed, which accurately and comprehensively describes the earth's natural complex groundwater systems
* Innovative exploration, drilling, and testing technologies that make major new ground-water sources more locatable and cost-effective to produce than ever before
* Actual case studies in which megawatershed methods have identified vast quantities of new water and brought new hope to previously arid and desperately water-short locales
* Chapters by former OECD DAC chairman Alexander R. Love, geopolitical analyst Dr. Ewan Anderson, and former director of the Trinidad and Tobago Water Resources Agency Dr. Utam Maharaj on the tremendous global implications of the megawater-shed paradigm. These experts explore the many beneficial applications of megawater-shed development, from macroeconomics to development of small island developing state (SIDS), and from critical environmental issues to water conflict resolution and the potential for a second "green revolution"
The world's need for clean, dependable water is more urgent-and addressable-than ever before. Let Modern Groundwater Exploration introduce you to the authors' revolutionary megawatershed paradigm, along with the latest concepts and technologies for accessing vast reservoirs of groundwater-still today's safest, cleanest, and most plentiful water resource.
In this work, a synthesis of all the techniques required in the exploration and economic evaluation of mineral deposits is provided. Little previous knowledge is assumed and the book is therefore suitable for students of mining and economic geology and of mining engineering. At the same time, the depth of coverage and the wide range of sophisticated evaluation techniques discussed should be of value to the professional geologist and engineer in the minerals industry. The various ways in which deposits can be sampled, and their data represented, are examined systematically before the book turns to a description of the full range of "classical" are reserve techniques, using worked examples throughout. Statistical and geostatistical techniques are reviewed together with the methods available for ore body modelling. Particularly useful is the section on the design and economic evaluation of open-pit operations. The author also presents an overview of the financial aspects of mining operations. The book draws heavily on case histories, the final chapter being devoted entirely to a number of these which cover a wide range of mineral deposits.
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